Gastric cancer Surgery in Ahmedabad by Dr. Manish Gandhi
Gastric cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. Age, diet, and stomach disease can affect the risk of developing gastric cancer.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following
Having any of the following medical conditions:
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach
- Chronic gastritis (inflammation of the stomach)
- Pernicious anemia
- Intestinal metaplasia (a condition in which the normal stomach lining is replaced with the cells that line the intestines)
- Gastric polyps
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Familial syndromes (including familial adenomatous polyposis)
- Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables
- Eating foods that have not been prepared or stored properly
- Being older or male
- Smoking cigarettes
- Having a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach cancer
- Symptoms of gastric cancer include indigestion and stomach discomfort or pain
- These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by gastric cancer or by other conditions
In the early stages of gastric cancer, the following symptoms may occur:
- Indigestion and stomach discomfort
- A bloated feeling after eating
- Mild nausea
- Loss of appetite
In more advanced stages of gastric cancer, the following signs and symptoms may occur:
- Blood in the stool
- Weight loss for no known reason
- Stomach pain
- Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin)
- Ascites (build-up of fluid in the abdomen)
- Trouble swallowing
Check with your doctor if you have any of these problems.
Tests that examine the stomach and esophagus are used to detect (find) and diagnose gastric cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease. That includes lumps or anything else that seems unusual. They also take a history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments.
Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease.
Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
The portion of the sample made up of red blood cells.
Upper endoscopy: A procedure to look inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine) to check for abnormal areas. An endoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is passed through the mouth and down the throat into the esophagus.
Barium swallow: A series of x-rays of the esophagus and stomach. The patient drinks a liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and x-rays are taken. This procedure is also called an upper GI series.
EnlargeBarium swallows for stomach cancer; drawing shows barium liquid flowing through the esophagus and into the stomach.
Barium swallow for stomach cancer. The patient swallows barium liquid and it flows through the esophagus and into the stomach. X-rays are taken to look for abnormal areas.
CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy of the stomach is usually done during the endoscopy.
The sample of tissue may be checked to measure how many HER2 genes there are and how much HER2 protein is being made. If there are more HER2 genes or higher levels of HER2 protein than normal, the cancer is called HER2 positive. HER2-positive gastric cancer may be treated with a monoclonal antibody that targets the HER2 protein.